Paper – I
First of all, Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production.
Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans. Climate change – International conventions and global initiatives.
Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. Also, Organic and Precision
Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests. Propagation of forest plants. Forest products.
Soil – physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of India. Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations, integrated nutrient management. Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in
Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum
Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers. Training programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in
Paper – II Nabard online coaching
First of all, Cell structure, function and cell cycle.
Mutations – and their role in crop improvement. Also, Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Furthermore, Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited characters. History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution and domestication of crop plants,
Heterosis and its exploitation. Furthermore, Somatic hybridization. Breeding for disease and pest resistance. Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement. Genetically modified crop plants. Seed production and processing technologies. In addition, Seed certification, seed testing and storage. DNA
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues and its impact on Agriculture. Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients. And Soil -water- plant relationship. Also, Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis- modern concepts and factors
Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Growth and development; photoperiodism and
Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops. Also, Package practices of major horticultural crops. Furthermore, Protected cultivation and high tech horticulture.
Classification of pests and diseases and their management. Integrated pest and disease management. Storage pests and their management. Biological control of pests and diseases. Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Also, Plant quarantine measures. Pesticides, their formulation and modes of action.
Also, Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population – vision 2020. Reasons for grain surplus. National and international food policies. Production, procurement, distribution constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty, Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS), policy implementation in context to globalization. Furthermore, Processing constraints.
Furthermore, Relation of food production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern. Also,
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