TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:   Training and development refers to imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. It is an attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by increasing skills or knowledge.   Distinction between Training and Development: (CHART)   Training and development methods:

  • On the job training-
    • Orientation- This is the process of introducing or orienting a new employee to the organization and its procedures, rules and regulations. The orientation training course should not be too lengthy. Orientation provides basic training to the new employee and gets him acquainted with the work environment.
    • Job instruction- JIT is an on-the-job training method where a trainer (1) preparesa trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the resultsdesired, (2) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (3) allows the trainee to mimic the demonstration on his or her own, and (4) follows up to provide feedback and help.

(NOTE: KSA stands for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities)

  • Internship- Under Internship, students studying in professional institutes or vocational colleges are provided practical knowledge through attachment with a business enterprise. Internship is usually meant for such vocations where advance theoretical knowledge is to be backed by practical experience.
  • Coaching- on the job coaching is a procedure by which a superior teaches job knowledge and skills to the subordinate. The emphasis in on-the-job coaching is learning by doing.
  • Job rotation- job rotation involves moving employees from one department to another to learn different functions of the organization. A general background of different jobs is provided through job rotation.
  • Off the job training-
    • Lectures/ seminars- it is useful when concepts, attitudes, theories and problem solving abilities are to be taught. It is associated more with knowledge than skill. There are some aspects in every job, which can be learnt better in classroom than on the job. The cost per trainee is low in lecture method as it can be used for large groups. However, it violates the principle of learning by doing and thus provides passive knowledge to trainees.
    • Audio visuals- they include television slides, videos and films. They can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations. The quality of presentation can be controlled and remains equal for all training groups.
    • Role plays- the essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation, as in case study and then have the trainees assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. The consequence of role playing is better understanding among individuals.
    • Case studies- case studies are used as a means of simulating experience in the classroom. This method gives the trainees an opportunity to apply his knowledge to the solution of realistic problems. Case studies are most effective where
      • Problem solving, critical thinking skills are checked,
      • Where active participation of trainees is required,
      • Team problem solving skills need to be developed
      • Bridge the gap between theory and practice
    • SimulationSimulation exercises train the employees in an artificial environment which closely resembles the employee’s actual working conditions. It gives the employee knowledge about how problems arise in actual working environment and how they need to be solved. Simulation is generally carried out in aviation industry. Pilots are taught flying through simulators. They are made to experience real life situations inside an aircraft through simulators as flying a real aircraft without enough practice may be dangerous.
    • Vestibule Trainings-In vestibule trainings, employees practice work on the instrument/ equipment which they would be using in future when they would be actually working. The instruments are not simulators but real tools, which are to be handled by the employees. Vestibule training is often carried out in manufacturing industries.
      • Programmed instructions- training is offered without intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, through books or training machines. After going through each block, learner has to answer questions about it. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. If the answers are correct, learner proceeds to the next block, if not, she repeats the same. PI allows learner to learn at his/ her own speed.
      • Computer assisted instruction- this is an extension of PI method. CAI provides better feedback and a better programmed training module using computer technologies.
      • Sensitivity training- Sensitivity training is imparted to essentially increase the self-awareness of the employees. It is aimed to help the employees or trainees see how others see them. Such type of training is used to increase the self worth of the trainees and also for changing interpersonal behaviours. More importantly it can wipe out negativity from the organisation; in fact many organisations in the west use this training method for top management. Discussions under sensitivity training focus on “why participants behave as they do, how they perceive one another and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process”. Specific results sought include increased ability to empathise with others, improved listening skills, greater openness and increased tolerance towards individual differences. Sensitivity training has other names like “laboratory training, encounter groups or T-groups (training groups).”
      • Apprenticeship- Apprenticeship programs involve on-the-job training coupled with in-class support for students before they directly enter the workforce. Apprenticeships also are called dual-training programs because participants receive training both in the workplace and at school. Apprenticeship programs have proven extremely effective in smoothly transferring school-related skills to pragmatic workforce application.

Organization Development-

  • Organization development is a long term strategy which focuses on the whole culture of the organization in order to bring about planned change. It seeks to change beliefs, attitudes, values and structure as well as culture of the entire organization.
  • OD is planned, managed from the top with the objective of increasing effectiveness of the organization in the future.
  • OD techniques are similar to training and development techniques discussed above.

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