1. Governance in India owes its origins to the in-house development of applications during the 1970s and 1980s in defence, economic planning, census, tax administration and elections.
  2. Subsequently, massive efforts were made during the 1980s by the National Informatics Centre (NIC) to connect all the district headquarters in the country through a VSAT network.
  3. However, all these efforts were mainly government centric with the primary objective of exploiting information and communication technologies (ICTs) for automating internal government functions.
  4. Citizen centricity with a focus on improving delivery of services to the citizens was not the primary goal during this period.
    1. Citizen centric services spread with the coming of the internet in the late 1990s and for most of the last 1 decade.
    2. NeGP was conceptualized to spread these technologies for delivery of services to citizens and also address challenges of a fragmented eGov practiced by various states in the country.
    3. “The SMART way forward”
      1. A “Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent” (SMART) governance
      2. Government is responsible for providing certain services to the citizens, just like an organisation is responsible for managing a value chain that leads to output.
  • Business corporations have discovered over the last few decades that information technology can make the value chain more efficient and lead to quality improvements and cost savings.
  1. Similarly, Governments have discovered that information technology can make the provision of services to the citizen more efficient and transparent, can save costs and lead to a higher level of efficiency.
  2. Analogous to e-commerce, which allows business to transact with each other more efficiently (B2B) and brings customers closer to businesses (B2C), e-government aims to make the interaction between government and citizens (G2C), government and business enterprises (G2B), and inter-agency relationships (G2G) more friendly, convenient, transparent, and inexpensive.
  3. The key principles of e-Kranti (NeGP 2.0) are as follows:
    1. Transformation and not Translation.
    2. Integrated Services and not Individual Services.
    3. Government Process Reengineering (GPR) to be mandatory in every MMP.
    4. ICT Infrastructure on Demand.
    5. Cloud by Default.
    6. Mobile First.
    7. Fast Tracking Approvals.
    8. Mandating Standards and Protocols.
    9. Language Localization.
    10. National GIS (Geo-Spatial Information System).
    11. Security and Electronic Data Preservation.
  4. e-Gov Programs:
    1. e-Kranti (NeGP 2.0)
      • Aims to enhance the portfolio of citizen-centric services and ensure optimum usage of core information and communication technology (ICT).
      • The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) is the most significant initiative taken in India during the last decade to mainstream ICT in governance at both central and state levels.
      • It lays emphasis on creating the right governance and institutional framework within the country, establish the core IT infrastructure, and implement a number of Mission Mode Projects at the central, state and integrated levels.
      • The objectives of ‘e-Kranti’ are:
        1. Citizen Centric Service Delivery
        2. Optimum usage of ICT
      • With ICT infrastructure on demand, the programme also seeks to ensure cloud by default, mobile first, language localisation and security and electronic data preservation.
      • E-Kranti is an important pillar of the Digital India programme.
      • The mission of e-Kranti is to ensure a government wide transformation by delivering all government services electronically to citizens through integrated and interoperable systems via multiple modes, while ensuring efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs
      • The programme management structure approved for Digital India programme would be used for monitoring implementation of e-Kranti and also for providing a forum to ascertain views of all stakeholders, overseeing implementation, resolving inter-Ministerial issues and ensuring speedy sanction of projects.
      • The thrust areas of the e-Kranti – electronic delivery of services under the Digital India programme are:
        1. Technology for Education (e-Education)
        2. Health (e-Healthcare)
        3. Farmers
        4. Financial Inclusion
        5. Planning
        6. Justice
        7. Security
        8. Cyber Security
  1. Digital India (overarching umbrella over everything)
    • Government is implementing the Digital India programme as an umbrella programme to prepare India for a knowledge based transformation into a digitally empowered Society and knowledge economy.
    • Digital India aims to provide the much needed thrust to the nine pillars of growth areas, namely:
      1. Broadband Highways
      2. Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity
      3. Public Internet Access Programme
      4. e-Governance: Reforming Government through Technology
      5. e-Kranti – Electronic Delivery of Services
      6. Information for All
      7. Electronics Manufacturing
      8. IT for Jobs
      9. Early Harvest Programmes.
    • MyGov website (shining example of C2G)
  1. Problems why Private Companies not coming
    • Net Neutrality
    • Digital Sovereignty
  2. G2C
    • E-courts
    • Mobile One by Karnataka Government
  3. G2B
    • E-Biz
    • Taxation filings
    • E-Procurement
  • G2G
    • E-Courts
    • District level portals for administration use
    • Land Records Modernization
  • C2G
    • MyGov
    • Centralized Public Grievances Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS)
    • Citizen Grievance Redressal:
      1. CVC
      2. State Lokayuktas
      3. NHRC
      4. SHRC
      5. National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
  1. Mobile One by Karnataka Government
    • An anganwadi worker in rural Karnataka can register her attendance through a service called Mobile One, which a software professional in Bengaluru can also use to pay electricity and water bills or book tickets.
  2. Jaankari:
    • Bihar’s unique attempt to accept Right to Information (RTI) applications through phone calls (‘Jaankari’ project) has been selected for the first prize for ‘outstanding performance in citizen centric service delivery’ at the National Awards for e-Governance (2008-09).
  3. e-Shakti [SHGs]
    • Has resulted in increase of SHG deposits in banks from 9000 crore to 17000 from 2013 to 2014, almost an 88% increase
    • e-Shakti has been implemented to improve the quality of interface between SHG members and banks for efficient and hassle-free delivery of banking services
    • A bank manager will be able to track the activities of SHGs sitting in a room, including particulars like how much savings an SHG has or how regularly it meets and the profile of its members. This will not only help the banker but also change the risk perception of SHGs
  • Samanvay
    • Web portal to track the implementation of the Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY).
  1. Problems in e-Gov
    1. Funding
    2. Interoperability
  • Use of Local Language
  1. Capacity Development
  2. Resistance
  3. Digital Divide
  • Security and Privacy


Consumer Protection

  1. The welfare role of the State is of considerable importance and therefore various measures to ensure the welfare – safety, security and well being – of its citizens are essential.
  2. However, citizens rely on the open market for most of their purchases – particularly, goods and also increasingly, of services and the asymmetry between the consumers of goods and services and the producers of these goods and services in terms of knowledge, bargaining power etc. necessitates State intervention.
  3. This has resulted in setting up of consumer protection mechanisms.
  4. The Consumer Protection Act was passed in 1986 to protect the interests of the consumers.
    1. The objective of this law is to provide a simple, fast and inexpensive mechanism to the citizens to redress their grievances in specified cases.
    2. The Act envisages a three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the National, State and District levels;
      1. (i) National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission – known as “National Commission”,
      2. (ii) State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission known as “State Commission”
  • (iii) District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum – known as “District Forum”.
  1. The Act also provides for establishment of Consumer Protection Councils at the Union, State and District levels, whose main objectives are to promote and protect the rights of consumers