Economic Survey Volume 2 Chapter 10 (Latest)
CHAPTER – 10
SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE, EMPLOYMENT AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
The chapter identifies investment in human capital as a prerequisite for a healthy and productive population for nation-building. It describes how The Government has been enhancing the expenditure on human capital along with adopting measures to improve the efficiency of expenditure by
TRENDS IN SOCIAL SECTOR EXPENDITURE
The expenditure on social services by the Centre and States as a proportion of GDP has remained in the range of 6% over the past few years. It has further moved up to 6.6% in 2017-18 (BE).
EDUCATION FOR ALL
The Government of India is committed to achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG- 4) for education – “Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning” by 2030.
India has made significant progress in quantitative indicators such as enrolment levels, completion rates, etc. However, the quality of education also needs to be monitored and assessed.
The RTE Act, 2009 lays down the guidelines for maintaining the norms and standards such as SCR, PTR and GPI for
Certain indicators to assess inclusiveness of schooling system:
Percentage of schools with SCR>30 students declined from 43% in 2009-10 to 25.7% in 2015-16.
PTR>30 might be due to
With efforts like Beti Padhao, Beti Bachao, the GPI has improved substantially at the primary and secondary levels of enrolment.
PROGRESS IN LABOUR REFORMS
In order to ensure
The gender gap in
Women workers are the most disadvantaged in the labour market as they constitute a very high proportion among the low skilled informal worker category, and are engaged in low-productivity and low paying work. Owing to this, women earn very low wages.
POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN
Although there are 49% of women in the population yet the political participation of women has been low.
As per the report ‘Women in Politics 2017 (IPU & UN)’ Lok Sabha had 64 (11.8% of 542 MPs) and Rajya Sabha had 27 (11% of 245 MPs) women MPs.Among the State assemblies, the highest percentage of women MLAs were from Bihar, Haryana and Rajasthan with 14% followed by Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal with 13% and Punjab with 12%
There are developing countries like Rwanda which has more than 60% women representatives in Parliament in 2017 while countries like Egypt, India, Brazil, Malaysia, Japan, Sri Lanka and Thailand have less than 15% representation of women in Parliament.
To promote women’s political participation and leadership roles:
HEALTH FOR ALL
- Ensuring healthy lives and promoting the well-being for all at all ages is essential to sustainable development (SDG-3).
- Expenditure by the Government healthcare providers accounted for about 23% of the Current Health Expenditure (CHE) as per National Health Accounts 2014-15 that reflects the prominence of private hospitals and clinics among health care providers.
- Incurring higher levels of Out of Pocket Expenditure (OoPE) on health adversely impacts the poorer sections and widens inequalities in developing economies.
- Diagnostics– Limited affordability and access to quality medical services contribute to delayed or inappropriate responses to disease control and patient management. There are not only wide differences in average prices of diagnostic tests but also range in the prices is substantial.
The report ‘India: Health of the Nation’s States’, 2017 provides the first comprehensive set of findings for the distribution of diseases and risk factors across all States from 1990 to 2016.
Of the total disease burden in India measured as DALYs, 61% was due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) in 1990, which dropped to 33% in 2016. There was a corresponding increase in the contribution of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) from 30% of the total disease burden in 1990 to 55
Leading risk factors for health loss:
There exists an inverse relationship between life expectancy and DALY rates. States with higher life expectancy reflect lower DALYs rates means lower incidence of diseases and vice-versa. States with high DALYs rates
Inequalities in life expectancies still persist among states with a range of 64.5 years in UP to 75.2 years in Kerala in 2015.
Government Programmes for Women & Children:
Public Health Expenditure by States and DALYs
- The National Health Policy, 2017 – recommended increasing State sector health spending to more than 8% of the State government budget by 2020.
- States with lowest per capita public health expenditure have higher DALYs rate as compared to the States with greater public health spending. However, the States of Assam, Uttarakhand, Delhi, and J& K have higher DALY rate despite having higher per capita public spending.
- The efficiency in the use of resources along with measures for preventive and curative health care is necessary to translate enhanced expenditure into improved health outcomes.
- Increase in use of antibiotics in developing countries like India where health care spending is
low,is a cause for concern.
COMBATING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE (AMR) IN INDIA
AMR – microorganisms change in ways that render the medications used to cure the infections they cause ineffective.
Reasons– inappropriate use of medicines, low-quality medicines, wrong prescriptions and poor infection prevention and control also encourage development and spread of drug resistance.
AMR is of particular concern in developing nations where the burden of infectious diseases is high and
The Government of India has initiated series of actions including setting up a National Surveillance System for AMR, enacted regulations (Schedule-H-1) to regulate
Challenge– efficient implementation through a coordinated approach at all levels of use of antibiotics for which all State Governments need to develop state-specific action plans.
SWACHH BHARAT MISSION (GRAMIN)
- The number of persons defecating in open in rural areas, which were 55
crorein October,2014 declined to 25 crorein January,2018, at a much faster pace compared to the trend observed before 2014.
- 296 districts and 307,349 villages all over
the Indiahave been declared as Open Defecation Free (ODF).
- Eight States and two UTs i.e. Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Daman & Diu and Chandigarh have been declared as ODF completely.
Health and Economic Impact of Sanitation
According to UNICEF, the lack of sanitation is responsible for the deaths of over 100,000 children in India annually and for stunting of 48% children.
As per the results of
- The non-ODF districts have
lowerpercentage of populationwith secondary education
- In ODF areas:
shift of the individuals due to behavioral largerpresence and proactive work undertaken by village health and sanitation committees (VHSC). Higherproportion of mothers of ODF areas in the ‘normal’ BMI category (62.9%) as compared to that of non-ODF areas (57.50%) showed that not only children but mothers were also healthier in the ODF areas.
The World Bank estimates, the lack of sanitation facilities costs India over 6
In a report ‘The Financial and Economic Impact of SBM in India (2017)’ UNICEF estimated that a household in an ODF village in rural India saves Rs. 50,000/- ($800) every year.