Economic Survey Volume 2 Chapter 5 (Latest)
CHAPTER – 5
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
The chapter analyses the progress made by India in meeting its commitment towards the goal of climate change, sustainable development
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
- The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the international community in September 2015 comprehensively covers social, economic and environmental dimensions and build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There are 17 SDGs which have 169 targets to be achieved by 2030.
- Reinforcing India’s commitment to the national development agenda and SDGs, the draft national SDG indicators are being developed by Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation with inputs from Central Ministries and various other stakeholders.
- India is one of the countries that has volunteered to take part in the Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) at the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) 2017.
India presented its 1st VNR on
1 (No Poverty); 2 (Zero Hunger); 3 (Good Health and Well-Being); 5 (Gender Equality); 9 (Industry, Innovation
- The NITI Aayog’s role will be to collect, validate and document best practices in
implementationof SDGs for wider dissemination. On a regular basis, progress on SDGs will be tracked through an integrated dashboard.
URBAN INDIA AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Facts on India’s rural to urban transition:
- Indian cities struggle with multiple problems.
Governmentof India has undertaken several measures such as the Smart Cities Mission, National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy (2007), Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), and management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) etc. to achieve SDG 11 which states “make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”.
- However, challenges remain such as financing (as 39 lakh crores
isrequired for creationof urban infrastructure in next 20 years with additional 20 lakh crores for operation and maintenance as estimated by the High Powered Expert Committee appointed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs)
- There is a need to encourage the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) to raise resources through various innovative financial instruments. (In July 2015, SEBI notified a new regulatory framework – Issue and Listing of Debt Securities by Municipalities Regulations- for issuing municipal bonds)
According to World Economic and Social Survey, 2013, achieving the sustainability of cities entails
ACCESS TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
- Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is important for achieving the SDGs as it has deep inter-linkages with all the other goals such as good health, gender equality, industry, innovation, infrastructure, etc.
- For instance – lack of access to clean cooking to around 64% of the population (world average – 38%) increases the burden on female members of the households to collect
fuel wood. It also impacts their health disproportionately due to more exposure to indoor air pollution due to usageof such fuels. Thus, access to clean energy may reduce time spent on collectionof fuelwood and may have a positive impact on girl’s education and employment (on an average, women spend around 374 hours every year for collection of firewood)
governmenthas taken various initiatives for improving access to clean energy:
- Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana to provide LPG connections to BPL households.
- “Ujjwala Plus” to address the cooking needs of deprived people who are not covered under the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011.
- Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) to achieve 100
per centvillage electrification and Saubhagya scheme to universal household electrification.
- Focus on energy generation through sustainable sources. As
on30th November 2017, 18% of the total installed capacity of electricity was from renewable energy sources. However, this has also led to disputes relating to renegotiations of Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs).
- For efficient energy use, Buildings Energy Efficiency Programme was launched. Under this scheme, Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) is likely to retrofit about one crore LED lights, 15 lakh energy efficient ceiling fans, and 1.5 lakh energy efficient ACs in more than 10,000 government and private buildings by the year 2020.
Renegotiation of PPAs by certain states
PPA is a contract between
In the case of renewable energy, state electricity regulatory commissions set the Feed-in Tariffs for the purchase of electricity from these sources. PPAs were signed based on these pre-determined prices for a number of years.
Problem: The recent auctions for solar power procurement have led to
This has led to some demands for
. It may also result in legal battles and banks (already facing the issue of NPAs) may become apprehensive of lending to the sector in the future.
INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ALLIANCE ENTERED INTO FORCE
- ISA Framework Agreement entered into force on Dec 6, 2017 (signed on 30
Nov,2015) in Paris.
- The Paris Declaration establishing ISA states that the countries share the collective ambition to undertake innovative and concerted efforts for reducing the cost of finance and cost of technology for immediate deployment of solar generation assets.
- This will help pave the way for
futuresolar generation, storage and good technologies for each prospective member country’s individual needs by mobilizing more than US$ 1 trillion dollars in investments that will be required by 2030. Governmentof India has made a provision of Rs. 100 crore as one-timefund for ISA Fund corpus. In addition, a recurring expenditure grant of 15 crore per annum for the period 2016-17 to 2020-21 has also been committed by India for meeting ISA’s day to day expenditure and meeting cost of outreach events etc.
ISA (International Solar Alliance) is a coalition of solar rich countries lying fully or partially between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and aims to specifically address energy needs by harnessing solar energy.
Currently, 46 countries have signed and out of these, 19 countries have ratified the ISA Framework Agreement.
ISA is also the first International inter-governmental treaty-based organization headquartered in India.
- The Government of India has earmarked around
US$ 2 billion Line of Credit (LoC) to the African countries for implementationof solar and related projects out of its total US $ 10 billion LoC under the Indian Development and Economic Assistance Scheme.
Initiatives under ISA:
INDIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE
- India has always engaged constructively under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and India is now actively engaged in the efforts towards developing guidelines for effective implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change.
- Domestically, India has launched various policies and set up institutional mechanisms to advance its actions:
- National Action Plan on Climate Change is being implemented which includes eight national missions covering solar, energy efficiency, agriculture, water, sustainable habitat, forestry, Himalayan ecosystem
andknowledge. 32 States and UTs have put in place the State Action Plans on Climate Change attempting to mainstream climate change concerns in their planning process.
- National Adaptation Fund on Climate Change established in 2015 to support concrete adaptation activities which are not covered under on-going activities through the schemes of State and Central Government, continues till 31st March 2020 with
financialimplication of 364 crore.
- India’s growth in the forest cover has been in the positive territory while that for Indonesia and Brazil, which are countries with substantial forest cover, the growth has been in the negative territory during the same period.
- Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana has been formulated with the vision of extending the coverage of irrigation and improving water use efficiency.
- Second Phase of Science Express Climate Action Special train with the aim to create awareness among various sections of society, especially students, on the science of climate change, the observed and anticipated impacts, and different possible responses as to how climate change can be combated.
- Indian financial market also moved in the direction of greener actions. SEBI issued the circular on the disclosure requirements for Issuance and Listing of Green Debt Securities on 30
February,2017, India launched the world’s first interoperable Quick Response (QR) code acceptance solution. It is a sticker pasted on the teller counter wall of the merchant and can be generated dynamically on merchant itself, removing the need to even print.
- Zero Effect, Zero Defect is a policy initiative to enhance energy efficiency and resources efficiency in Medium & Small Industries.
- The National Mission for Clean Ganga seeks to rejuvenate the river along its length of more than 2,500 km.
Air Pollution in Delhi – Possible solutions
In recent years, the National Capital Delhi and adjoining areas have experienced alarmingly poor air quality starting winter. Generally, the annual average PM 2.5 (being the most dangerous) levels remain about 3 times higher than the prescribed standards.
There are 4 top reasons for Delhi’s worsening air quality, especially in winter, about 30-40
A menu of effective actions has been suggested (National Green Tribunal and Supreme Court decisions; TERI, 2016), some of which have begun:
Short-Term Emergency Plan (when 24-hourly PM2.5 exceeds 300-400 mg/m3): Strict enforcement through heavy penalties on agricultural waste burning using
Medium and Long-Range Actions: Implement congestion pricing for vehicles, expand and improve public buses dramatically to reduce private vehicle use, and for connectivity to and beyond metro. Phase-out old vehicles, accelerate BS-VI (already notified and to be commenced from 2020
Explore the business cases for finding uses for the crop residues such as manure to reduce fertilizer cost, generate power so that economic values could be assigned.
Use of technologies such as Happy Seeder machine (sows seeds without the need to remove paddy straw and works well when the straw is spread evenly on the field through the straw management system)
The Global Climate Risk Index 2018 has put India amongst the six most vulnerable countries in the world. Thus, Climate change has been given high importance in policy decisions. The Fifteenth Finance Commission Terms of Reference outlined climate change as an important aspect
It is necessary for developed countries to be compliant
Common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR): Principle of