1. The Constitution of India was formed through a process of formation of constituent assembly which drafted, debated, deliberated, amended and finally formed a final Constitution of India. The process has historical roots in the British administration in India from the Company rule to the Crown rule. It derived many functions of administration and division of power and duties from various Regulating Acts and Government of India Acts passed by the British in India. Eventually, it was drafted under the leadership of Dr. BR Ambedkar, who along with other drafting committee members adopted various practices and methods from other constitutions in the democratic world. The Constitution was adopted finally in Nov. 1949 with the seal of the Constituent assembly of India.
  2. Major Events in the formation of Indian Constitution: 
    1. MN Roy’s demand and call for formation of a constituent assembly 1934
    2. Nehru’s call for formation of an independent constituent assembly 1938
    3. Cripps’ mission to establish constituent assembly in India 1942 – rejected by Muslim League which was demanding two nations and a separate constituent assembly
    4. Cabinet Mission sent to India to form constituent assembly 1946 – proposed the formation of constituent assembly in India and structured the division of seats in the assembly to British Provinces (consisting of communal seats among General, Muslims and Sikhs, which were to be elected through a vote in these provinces) and Princely States (members nominated by the head of the respective states)
  1. Proportional representation of British provinces and also of the Princely states
  1. Objectives Resolution proposed by Nehru in 1946 in the Constituent assembly which proclaimed India as a sovereign country and draw up for her governance a constitution. – unanimously adopted
  2. Princely states representatives who had stayed away gradually started joining the constituent assembly
  3. Mountbatten Plan proposed for the division of India and Pakistanf and adopted by the Muslim Leagure in June 1947
  4. India Independence Act of 1947 also gave power to the constituent assembly to form the constitution
    1. Rajendra Prasad elected President of the Constituent Body (framing of the constitution) and GV Mavlankar the chair of the legislative body (for enacting laws)
    2. The Drafting committee of the Constituent assembly was created to pen down the preamble, basic features and a framework for the governance of the newly formed India and its states.
    3. The Drafting committee considered various aspects of the Indian political, social and economic society in pre and post-independence India
    4. The major features of the Constitution were: Preamble which defined the major driving themes of the constitution and derivation of power of the Indian constitution, formation of bicameral legislatures at the Centre and the States, the Federal structure of the Government of India, the provision of Fundamental Rights and Directives Principles of State Policy, the executive at the centre and the state levels (office of the President, Prime Minister, Governor etc.).
  1. Major Committees: 
  1. Union Power Committee: Nehru
  1. Union Constitution Committee: Nehru
  2. Provincial Constitution Committee: Sardar Patel
  3. Drafting Committee: BR Ambedkar
  4. Advisory Committee on FRs, Minorities, Tribal and Excluded Areas: Sardar Patel
  5. Rules of Procedure Committee: Rajendra Prasad
  6. States Committee (negotiating with States): Nehru
  7. Steering Committee: Rajendra Prasad
  8. Drafting Committee: 
  9. BR Ambedkar
  10. Ayyangar
  11. Ayyar
  12. Munshi
  13. Saadullah
  14. Madhava Rau – replaced by BL Mitter
  15. Kirshnamachari replaced by DP Khaitan

Enactment – Nov 26, 1949, Enforcement – Jan 26, 1950 (same day as call for Purna Swaraj in Lahore session 1930)