NABARD Grade A Exam Pattern & Syllabus 2018
We’ve updated the details about NABARD Grade A Syllabus & Exam Pattern for Phase 1 & Phase 2 based on the official notification as NABARD has Declared the notification. Information handout will provide the information about the exam pattern for Phase 1/Prelims NABARD Grade A. It is available on the official website of NABARD. The syllabus of NABARD Grade A Officer (General) has also been updated in this post.
You all must know the important areas to focus to clear the exam while preparing for NABARD Grade A Exam. Here, we are providing you with a detailed syllabus of the exam. It will provide you an idea about all the topics & types of questions which can be asked in the examination.
NABARD Grade A Examination Pattern 2018
The selection process of NABARD Grade A exam will comprise of following stages:
- Phase I – Preliminary Exam: Online Objective Test
- Phase II – Main Exam: Online Objective & Online Descriptive Test
- Phase III – Interview
Exam Pattern of NABARD Grade A Preliminary Examination
Online Preliminary Exam is qualifying in nature and is meant to serve as a screening test. Candidates who qualify and rank sufficiently high in Preliminary Exam, well above the cutoff, shall be called for appearing in the Main Examination. So, the marks secured in Phase I – Online preliminary examination will not be counted for final selection.
The Exam Pattern for NABARD Grade A Exam 2018 (Phase I) is as follows –
The Exam Pattern for NABARD Grade A Exam 2018 (Phase II) is as follows –
NABARD Grade A Examination Complete Syllabus
Illustrative syllabus for Phase II (Main Examination) may be as furnished below:
FOR ALL POSTS
FOR GENERAL POST
2) Paper II – Economic & Social Issues and Agriculture & Rural Development
Economic & Social Issues: Nature of Indian Economy – Structural and Institutional features – Economic underdevelopment – Opening up the Indian Economy – Globalisation – Economic Reforms in India – Privatisation. Inflation – Trends in Inflation & their Impact on National Economy and Individual Income. Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation in India – Rural and Urban – Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Alleviation Programmes of the Government. Population Trends – Population Growth and Economic Development – Population Policy in India. Agriculture – Characteristics / Status – Technical and Institutional changes in Indian Agriculture – Agricultural performance – Issues in Food Security in India –
Agriculture & Rural Development:
Agriculture: definition, meaning and its branches, Agronomy: definition, meaning
a) Soil and Water Conservation: Major soil types, soil fertility,
b) Water Resource: Irrigation Management: types of irrigation, sources of irrigation, crop-water requirement, command area development, water conservation techniques, micro-irrigation, irrigation pumps, major, medium and minor irrigation.
c) Farm and Agri Engineering : Farm Machinery and Power, Sources of power on the farm- human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass,
d) Plantation & Horticulture: Definition, meaning
e) Animal Husbandry: Farm animals and their role in
f) Fisheries: Fisheries resources, management and exploitation – freshwater, brackish water
g) Forestry: Basic concepts of Forest and Forestry. Principles of silviculture, forest mensuration, forest management
h) Agriculture Extensions: Its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in
i) Ecology and Climate Change: Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management
j) Present Scenario of Indian Agriculture and Allied activities; recent trends, major challenges in agriculture measures to enhance
Rural Development: Concept of Rural Area, Structure of the Indian Rural Economy-Importance and role of the rural sector in India- Economic, Social and Demographic Characteristics of the Indian rural economy, causes of rural backwardness.
Rural population in India; Occupational structure, Farmers, Agricultural Labourers, Artisans, Handicrafts, Traders, Forest dwellers/tribes and others in rural India- Trends of change in rural population and rural
Panchayati Raj Institutions – Functions and Working. MGNREGA, NRLM – Aajeevika, Rural Drinking water Programmes, Swachh Bharat, Rural Housing, PURA
Soils, soil fertility and fertilizers, irrigation methods and practices, agronomic practices of fodder crops, crop rotations and intensity, grasses and grasslands,
Animal Genetics and Breeding:
Physiology of Reproduction and Lactation:
Male and female reproductive systems, spermato-genesis,
Morphology, reproduction, life history and mode of infection of the livestock parasites –
Dairy Management and Economics:
Principles of management of farm and labour, various classes of farm stock, sanitation in dairy farm and water, disposal of sewage and clean milk production, management functions, factors affecting farm efficiency, farm planning and budgeting, resource allocation, economic consideration of herd size, milk production, cost of inputs, labour efficiency.
Compositionof milk and factors affecting its legal standards for milk in India, physical properties and nutrition value of milk. Chemistry of lipids, protein andlactose, vitamins in milk and mineral balance.
- Type of micro-organisms in milk and their morphological characteristics,
milk bornediseases. Hygienic milk production, growthof bacteria in milk, milk fermentation, bacteriological grading in milk, indigenous milk products – manufacturing process, chemical composition and microbiology of products like khoa, burfi, channa, paneer, shrikhand.
- Western milk products – Manufacturing process of products like skim milk / whole milk powder, cheese, ghee, table butter, baby food, ice cream.
Chemicalcomposition of various products and fermented milk.
- Variation in milk composition in relation to species, storage and heat treatment, bacteriology of starter cultures, fermented
milks, condensed milk anddried milks.
- Milk procurement methods, price fixation
andmarketing of milk and milk products.
Breeds of poultry – genetic principles – selection methods – mating systems – economic traits – poultry production systems and management of feeding, disease control
Other Species of Livestock (Sheep, Goat, Pig
Important breeds – production systems, management – feeding – disease control – marketing.
Meat and Meat Products:
Production of meat – composition
1. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
1.1 Meaning; Objectives; Basic Accounting; Principles, Concepts
1.2 Preparation of Financial Statements – Nature of Financial Statements; Capital and Revenue Expenditure; Trading Account; Profit and Loss Appropriation account and Balance Sheet; Limitation of Financial Statements
1.3 Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Statements – Tools of Financials Statements analysis; Ratio Analysis – different types of ratios; Advantages and Limitation of ratio analysis.
1.4 Depreciation: Reserves and Provisions –
1.5 Inventory Valuation: Nature and Importance of Inventory Valuation; Types of Inventory Systems; Methods of Inventory valuation; choice of Method.
1.6 Developments in Accounting – Interim Reporting – Segment Reporting – Value – added statement – Corporate Social Reporting – Human Resource Accounting – Accounting for Intangible Assets – Accounting for Financial Instruments – Environmental Accounting – Inflation Accounting.
1.7 Statement of Sources and Application of Funds – Meaning of Funds, Distinction between Funds and Cash; Preparation of Fund Flow Statement; Analysis of flow of funds; Utility of Fund Flow Statement; Preparation of cash flow statement; Utility of
1.8 Preparation of Final Accounts of Banking, Insurance Companies – Basel III & Prudential Norms like Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non-Performing Assets – Provisions therefore for Banks and
2. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
2.1 Meaning and scope of Management Accounting; Financial Accounting Vs.Management Accounting; Role of Management Accounting; Function and Position of Controller.
2.2 Variable Costing – Fixed costs and Variable Costs; Distinctions between variable costing and absorption costing; application of variables costing as a technique; Differential costing and decision making.
2.3 Marginal costing – Cost volume profit analysis, Profit Planning, Break-even analysis, Break even Point and Break-even chart.
2.4 Methods of costing – job costing – Contract costing – Batch Costing – Process costing – Unit costing – Operation costing and Operating costing.
2.5 Cost of capital – Cost of different sources of finance –Weighted average cost of capital – Marginal cost of capital – Concepts of operating and financial leverage – Capital Structure patterns – Designing optimum capital structure – Different sources of finance – Long, medium and short term finance.
2.6 Money market and their operations
2.7 Business valuations – Mergers, Acquisitions
2.8 Budgetary control – Meaning and objectives; operation of Budgeting system; types of Budgets; Preparation of Sales Budget; Production Budget, Cash Budget, Master Budget; Flexible Budgeting; Zero Budgeting.
2.9 Standard Costing –Meaning of Standard costing;
2.10 Management Control
2.11 Appraisal of firms – Objectives, Uniform costing; Ratio Based Comparison; Credit Rating; Risk Assessment.
2.12 Appraisal of Projects – Methods of appraisal – preparation of project report – Economic, Technical, Financial Feasibility – Techniques for evaluation of projects like Pay Back Method, Discounted Cash Flow, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, etc. – Sensitivity analysis in capital budgeting – Impact of inflation in capital budgeting – Risk analysis in capital budgeting – Social
2.13 Working Capital Management: Factors affecting working Capital requirements; Assessment of Working Capital; Inventory Management; Receivable Management; Cash Management; Method of Financing working capital; different forms of bank credit; working capital and Banking Policy.
3.1 Auditing – Nature and scope – Audit Process – Objectives of audit – basic principles governing an audit – Types of audit – Relationship of auditing with other subjects – Internal Audit and External Audit – Audit & Inspection
3.2 Planning and programming of Audit – Division of work; supervision and review of audit notes and working papers; planning the flow of audit work.
3.3 Conduct of Audit – Audit Programme; Audit Note Book; Working Papers and Audit files.
3.4 Internal Control – Internal Control, Internal Check, Internal Audit and Concurrent Audit.
3.5 Vouching – General consideration vouching of payments and receipts; Vouching of payment into and out of Bank; Vouching of Goods on consignment, Sale on approval basis, Empties, Sale under
3.6 Verification –
3.7 Audit of Limited Company – Statutory requirements under the Companies Act 1956 – Audit of branches – Joint Audit – Concepts of true and fair materiality and audit risk in the context of
3.8 Dividends and divisible profits – financial, legal and policy considerations with special reference to depreciation – Audit reports – Qualification and Notes on accounts –Special report on offer documents.
3.9 Audit under income tax and indirect taxes – Special features of
3.10 Concept of Cost Audit, Management Audit, Operational Audit, Environmental Audit
3.11 Audit under computerized environments – Computer Auditing – Specific problems of EDP audit – need for review of internal control especially procedure controls and facility controls – techniques of audit of EDP output – use of computer for internal and management audit purpose – test packs – computerized audit programme – involvement of the auditor at the time of setting up the computer system.
Section I: Economics
- Micro Economics: Theory of Consumer Behaviour, Theory of Firm, Theory of Markets, Theory of Distribution and General Equilibrium.
- Macro Economics: National Income Accounting, Macro Economic stabilization policies, Fiscal and Monetary Policies, – Classical, Keynesian and Monetarists, Rational Expectation and
Supply sideEconomics, Public Finance – Theory of Taxation, Expenditure and Borrowing / Debt.
- Economics of Development and Planning – Theory of Growth and Development, Regional Imbalances, Planning – Types, Models and Evaluation of Plans, Project Economics, and Economic and Financial sector reforms.
- International Economics – Theories of trade, Foreign Exchange Market, Balance of Payments, International Monetary System and WTO.
- Money and Banking
Section II: Agricultural Economics
- Basic principles of Farm Management
- Role of Agriculture in Economic Development
- Factor Market – Land Market, Labour Market, including wages and
- Agricultural Marketing, Agricultural Prices and Terms of Trade
- Rural Credit Structure – Formal and Informal, Capital Formation in Agriculture
- Development Programmes including Poverty Alleviation and Rural Employment
- Agricultural Policy and planning
Section III: Elementary Statistics for Economics
- Measures of central tendency and dispersion- correlation, regression, Time-series analysis
- Theory of Probability, Sampling theory, Sampling Design
- Statistical Inference and Estimation, Statistical Tools and their application in Economic Analysis and
Input – OutputAnalysis.
Ecology and its scope, bio-
Ecosystems of the world, distinguishing characters of forests, grasslands, arid lands
Population growth, dynamics, species interactions – inter and
Types of forests in India and their coverage statistics – forest degradation problems caused by deforestation,
Definition and Sources of Pollution:
- Type and sources of primary and secondary air pollutants, atmospheric dispersion – distribution and transport of pollutants,
influenceof micrometrologicalparameters, effects of fog and smoke. Pollutants on plants, human beings, animals and non-living projects, air pollution control approaches, acid rain, causes andconsequences.
- Sources and types of water pollution, eutrophication, environmental consequences and health effects of water pollution, water quality, DO BOD COD of water pollution. Pesticides pollution and its ecological consequences, treatment methods in water pollution, control.
- General ideas of environmental legislation – EPA (EPA-Environmental Protection Act, 1956), water and air pollution legislation.
- Sources of soil pollution, harmful effects, problems and methods of solid waste disposal.
- Energy and environment renewable and non-renewable energy sources, causes of energy crisis,
fuel woodcrisis, bio-gas, non-conventional energy, sources, solar, wind, etc. potential advantage limitation. Relationshipbetween development and environmental impact. Conceptin EIA, methodology, impact identification, EIA of thermal, power projects, mining hydro electricprojects, irrigation projects, etc., agricultural practices. Green housegases, global warming, climate change andozone depletion, status in Indian sub-continent.
FOOD PROCESSING / FOOD TECHNOLOGY
- Agriculture and Livestock, milk production in India, National bodies concerned with trade and export of processed foods in the country, special value addition in food processing, food regulations, specifications, process economics and management, Food & Agro Industries as a means of employment generation, problems of food processing in India.
- Food Chemistry, Food Microbiology, Nutrition
- Proximate composition of foods,
chemistryof carbohydrates, proteins and fats, chemistryof food constituents vis-à-vis physical properties of foods, changes in food constituents during processing.
- Moisture and minerals in foods, acid soluble and insoluble ash and their significance.
- Vitamins in foods, role of vitamins, vitamin deficiency diseases.
Energy Value of Foods, Energy Requirement:
- Protein quality, protein malnutrition, infant nutrition
andinfant foods, nutritive value of foods in relation to processing, enzymes and their application in foods.
- Recommended daily allowance of calories, proteins, vitamins,
growthkinetics of micro-organisms, identification of micro-organisms.
- Factors influencing the destruction of micro-organisms.
- Micro-organisms in natural products and their control, sources and preventions of contamination.
- Microbiology of atmosphere, water, milk, cereals and cereal products, meat and meat products, fish and fish products, canned foods.
- Food poisoning,
Infestation Control and Pesticides:
Commodity storage, insect, pests and their effects, infestation detection, moulds / their role, rodents / vertebrate pests, pesticides classification / chemistry / formulation, appliances, insect growth regulators, bio-pesticides, fumigants, infestation control and preventive measures, sanitation, ballooning techniques, irradiation, pesticides and health hazards, safety devices, organic foods.
General Principles of Food Preservation:
- Preservation of foods by application of heat, canning, bottling, etc.
- Preservation of food by removal of moisture, water activity
- Intermediate moisture foods, prevention of food by refrigeration and freezing.
- Sugar and salt as preserving agents.
- Use of chemicals in food preservation.
- Use of micro-organisms in food preservation.
- Irradiation and microwave heating of food products.
- Fluid flow, heat transfer, evaporation, application of evaporation in food industry, types of evaporators, distillation – Routh’s Law, Harry’s Law, classification of distillation, batch distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation and their application in food industries, drying, theory of drying, free moisture, critical moisture content, equilibrium moisture content, heat transfer in drying, types of driers and their respective applications in food industries.
- Material operations, material handling, mixing, kneading, blending, homogenization, separation methods, filtration, centrifugation, size reduction
andclassification, slicing, dicing, crushing, grinding, classification of equipment and application. Crystallization.
- Livestock and poultry population in India
- Meat and poultry industry in India in relation to Nation’s economy.
- Types of slaughter, modern abattoir, estimation of animals, meat grading.
- Factors influencing the quality of fresh meat and cured meat.
- Preservation of meat, refrigeration and freezing, thermal processing, dehydration and use of chemicals.
- Meat curing and packaging.
- By-products of
meatindustry, egg and egg products.
- Fisheries resources of the world.
- Cold storage and freezing preservation, canning of fish and fish products, drying and dehydration of fish.
- Smoking, curing
andpickling of fish, fish oils, fish meal.
- By-products of fish processing, fish processing plant sanitation.
Compositionof milk from various species, production, processing, distribution andstorage of liquid milk. Technologyof evaporated milk, condensed milk, technologyof non-fat milk solids, full fatmilk powder and instantisedmilk powder. Technologyof cheese.
- Fermented milk products, milk plant sanitation, [pasteurization and sterilization.
Wheat Production, Varieties
- Milling of wheat,
technologyof bread, biscuits, crackers, cakes, dough rheology.
- Rice production, varieties
- Cooking quality of rice and methods of studying the same, methods of part boiling,
economicsof part boiling.
- Cooking quality of new and old rice.
- Rice milling operations, milling machinery,
- By-products of rice milling and their
oil seeds, extraction of oil from oil seeds.
- Refining and bleaching of oils, hydrogenation of oil.
- Legume – production, types of legumes, chemical aspects and quality of legumes, processing, secondary processing of products, utilization of minor pulses.
- Containers and other packaging materials used in fruit and vegetable preservation. Canning and bottling of fruit and vegetables, quality of raw materials for processing. Fruit syrups, squashes, cordials and nectars, jam, jellies and marmalades, pickles and chutneys.
- Carbonated beverages.
- Vinegar and tomato products.
- Storage and handling of fruits and vegetables.
- By-products from fruits and vegetables.
- Aseptic processing and packaging, processing of mushrooms.
Plantation Products and Flavour Technology:
- Refining and processing of spices, packing of spices,
value addedproducts from spices.
- Carbonated beverages.
- Production, processing, grading and marketing of tea, curing, roasting, brewing of coffee, instant coffee –
manufacture / production, processing, grading and marketing of cocoa.
- Food plant organization, factors in plant location, plant layout, industrial costing, testing marketing of
Packaging Technology – Evolution, functions, relevance, design, protective packaging, shelf life, permeability, kinetics, various types of packing materials,
Forestry – Definition, forests types and their characteristics,
Forest environments and environmental factors, forest community, ecological dominance, ecological adaptation end evolution, forest ecotypes.
Regeneration of forest – Definition and objectives, natural regeneration by seed (general consideration of afforestation and reforestation, preparation of plantation area site maintenance and improvement).
Environment factor influencing forest vegetation and productivity, physiology of leaf shedding and peeling of barks in perennial trees, physiological basis of including and breaking of dormancy in seeds.
Silviculture – Definition, factors, affecting the site, form
Silviculture Systems – Clear strip and alternate strip systems, uniform system and group system, irregular wood system,
Principal groups of plants, classification of forest plants yielding economic products, origin and distribution of economically important forest flora, nature and importance of economic parts in the important families (
Importance of energy plantation,
Seed orchards, maintenance
Microflora in forestry system, carbon cycle decomposition of organic matter, humus formation, nitrogen cycle – nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification microbial transformation of phosphorous,
Definition of social and agro-forestry, tree farming on wasteland, afforestation on hill slopes, wastelands, river banks
Wood structure, cellular composition – barks,
Importance of wood and minor forest products, products utilized after minor processing – grasses, products utilized after processing – gums, resins, rubber, fibers, flosses, distillation and extraction of tanning materials and vegetable dyes, cattle feed, non-edible oilseeds,
Importance of forest pathology,
Importance of forest, pests attacking forest products, felled trees, converted timbers and seeds
Economics of forest management, forest conservation
Forest evaluation and economic appraisal, types of appraisal, business and agricultural residues (rice straw, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, cotton stalk, jute sticks, hemp, banana stem
Forest trees of industrial utility – eucalyptus,
Defects and abnormalities of wood,
Natural durability of timber, bamboo and thatch grasses, agencies for destruction of timber – fungi, insects, micro-organisms, preservation of wood – types of
LAND DEVELOPMENT (SOIL SCIENCE)/ AGRICULTURE
Land use and land capability classification,
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management
Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of
Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests. Propagation of forest plants. Forest products.
Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination
Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management.
Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Marketing management – strategies for development, market intelligence. Price fluctuations and their cost;
Agricultural extension, its importance
Cell structure, function and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure
History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution
Seed production and processing technologies. Seed certification, seed testing
Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients. Soil – water- plant relationship.
Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis- modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C3, C4
Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices
Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops
Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population – vision 2020. Reasons for grain surplus. National and international food policies. Production, procurement, distribution constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty, Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS), policy implementation in context to globalization. Processing constraints. Relation of food production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern.
MINOR IRRIGATION (WATER RESOURCES)
Water Requirement of Crops:
Crop period, duty,
Canal Irrigation System:
Alignment of canals, watershed canals, contour canals, side shape canals, distribution system for canal irrigation, main canal, branch canal, distributaries, minors, water courses, curves in channels, gross command area, culturable command area, irrigation intensity, time factor, area factor, determination of channel capacity, channel losses, evaporation, seepage (percolation and absorption), seepage loss factors, empirical formulas for channel loss, sediment transport and load, mechanics of sediment transport, design of channels in coarse alluvium, shields entertainment method for channel with protected bank, regime channels, Kennedy’s theory, critical velocity rates, design procedure, Kutter’s formula, Manning’s formula,
Definition, hydrologic cycle, rainfall and its distribution, run-off and surface run-off, yield of drainage basis, sub-surface run-off, hydrograph, infiltration, soil moisture, field capacity, infiltration capacity curve and its equation, small and large watershed, precipitation and its measurement, frequency of storm intensity duration curve,
Ground Water, Hydrology and Construction of Wells and Tubewells:
Drainage of ground water,
Diversion Head Works:
Principles and design of weir and barrage, gravity and non-gravity weirs,
Canal Falls, Canal Regulators:
Types of falls and their design,
Cross Drainage Works:
Aqueducts and siphon, level crossing principles and design.
Dams and Reservoirs:
Basic principles of reservoir planning, types of dams and their characteristics, selection of dam site, investigations (Engineering, Geological
Spillage, Gates and Energy Dissipators:
Definition, location, design consideration, various types of spillways,
Scope and objective of river control, marginal embankment, spurs, cut-offs, launching apron.
Basic sciences for wash and sanitation, public health and hygiene, water supply, solid waste management.
Concept, Definition, Objectives, Goals, Values, Principles and
Evolution of Social Work:
Evolution of Social Work, Social work in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Period. Social Work and Related Terms: Social Services, Social Welfare, Social Reforms & Charity. Social Security, Human Rights
Development of Social Work Education in India:
Evolution of social work education in India, Training in Social Work Education, Focus, Nature
Democracy as a Concept:
Meaning, types, features, strengths
Nationalism, Feminism, Multiculturalism, Postmodernism.
Working with Groups:
Social Welfare Administration:
Concept & Process of social welfare and models of social welfare. Concept, Purpose, Principles
Social Justice and Welfare Organization:
Concept and Definition of Social Justice, Meaning, concept
Strategies / Tools in Community organization:
Advocacy, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Participatory Rapid Assessment, Public Interest Litigation (PIL), Community Meeting, Cadre Building, Training, Action Plan. Data Bank Skills in Community organization – Information Gathering. Community Profiling Observation & Analytical Skill, Listening & Responding Skill, Conflict Resolution, Evaluation. Process Recording, Documentation in Community work.
Social Work Research:
Social Action as a method of Social Work:
Conceptual Framework of Integrated social work, Concept of Integrated social work. Need, Importance and Essential elements of integrated social work practice. Biodiversity, Disaster Management, Environment, Jal-Jungle-Jameen
Tribal Community; meaning, characteristics. Rural Community; meaning, characteristics. Urban Community; meaning, characteristics. Social Stratification; Meaning, definition, functions, dysfunction, caste. Social Mobility; Concept, meaning, class. Social Institution, Social control. Meaning, characteristics
Social Problems And Fields Of Social Work In India:
Problem Pertaining To Marriage, Family And Caste: Dowry-Child Marriage, Divorce, Families With Working Couples, Disorganised Families, Families With Emigrant Heads Of The Households, Gender Inequality, Authoritarian Family Structure, Major Changes In Caste Systems And Problems of Casteism. Problems Pertaining To Weaker Sections: Problems Of Children, Women, Aged. Handicapped and Of Backward Classes (SCs, STs, and Other Backward Classes). Problems Of Deviance – Truancy, Vagrancy And Juvenile Delinquency, Crime, White Collar Crime, Organized Crime, Collective Violence, Terrorism, Prostitution
Problems of Social Structure:
Poverty, Unemployment, Bonded Labour, Child Labour. Fields Of Social work In India:- Child Development, Development Of Youth, Women’s Empowerment, Welfare Of Aged, Welfare Of Physically, Mentally And Socially Handicapped, Welfare Of Backward Classes (SCs, STs And Other Backward Classes), Rural Development Urban Community Development, Medical And Psychiatric Social Work, Industrial Social Work, Social Security Offender Reforms.