NABARD Grade A Exam Pattern & Syllabus 2019

We’ve updated the details about NABARD Grade A Syllabus & Exam Pattern for Phase 1 & Phase 2 based on the official notification as NABARD has Declared the notification. Information handout will provide the information about the exam pattern for Phase 1/Prelims NABARD Grade A. It is available on the official website of NABARD. The syllabus of NABARD Grade A Officer (General) has also been updated in this post.

You all must know the important areas to focus to clear the exam while preparing for NABARD Grade A Exam. Here, we are providing you with a detailed syllabus of the exam. It will provide you an idea about all the topics & types of questions which can be asked in the examination.

NABARD Grade A Examination Pattern 2019

The selection process of NABARD Grade A exam will comprise of following stages:

  1. Phase I – Preliminary Exam: Online Objective Test
  2. Phase II – Main Exam: Online Objective & Online Descriptive Test
  3. Phase III – Interview

Exam Pattern of NABARD Grade A Preliminary Examination

Online Preliminary Exam is qualifying in nature and is meant to serve as a screening test. Candidates who qualify and rank sufficiently high in Preliminary Exam, well above the cutoff, shall be called for appearing in the Main Examination. So, the marks secured in Phase I – Online preliminary examination will not be counted for final selection.

The Exam Pattern for NABARD Grade A Exam 2019 (Phase I) is as follows –

The Exam Pattern for NABARD Grade A Exam 2019 (Phase II) is as follows –

NABARD Grade A Examination Complete Syllabus

Illustrative syllabus for Phase II (Main Examination) may be as furnished below:

FOR ALL POSTS

1) Paper I – English: Essay, Précis writing, Comprehension and Business/Office Correspondence. The paper on English shall be framed in a manner to assess the writing skills including expressions and understanding the topic.

FOR GENERAL POST

2) Paper II – Economic & Social Issues and Agriculture & Rural Development

Economic & Social Issues: Nature of Indian Economy – Structural and Institutional features – Economic underdevelopment – Opening up the Indian Economy – Globalisation – Economic Reforms in India – Privatisation. Inflation – Trends in Inflation & their Impact on National Economy and Individual Income. Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation in India – Rural and Urban – Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Alleviation Programmes of the Government. Population Trends – Population Growth and Economic Development – Population Policy in India. Agriculture – Characteristics / Status – Technical and Institutional changes in Indian Agriculture – Agricultural performance – Issues in Food Security in India – Non Institutional and Institutional Agencies in rural credit. Industry – Industrial and Labour Policy – Industrial performance – Regional Imbalance in India’s Industrial Development – Public Sector Enterprises. Rural banking and financial institutions in India – Reforms in Banking/Financial sector. Globalisation of Economy – Role of International Funding Institutions – IMF & World Bank – WTO – Regional Economic Co-operation. Social Structure in India – Multiculturalism – Demographic trends – Urbanisation and Migration – Gender Issues Joint family system – Social Infrastructure – Education – Health and Environment. Education – Status & System of Education – Socio -Economic Problems associated with Illiteracy – Educational relevance and educational wastage – Educational Policy for India. Social Justice: Problems of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes – socio-economic programmes for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and other backward classes. Positive Discrimination in favour of the under privileged – Social Movements – Indian Political Systems – Human Development. Current Economic & Social Issues.

Agriculture & Rural Development:

Agriculture: definition, meaning and its branches, Agronomy: definition, meaning and scope of agronomy. Classification of field crops. Factors affecting on crop production, Agro Climatic Zones; Cropping Systems: Definition and types of cropping systems. Problems of dry land agriculture; Seed production, seed processing, seed village; Meteorology: weather parameters, crop-weather advisory; Precision Farming, System of Crop Intensification, organic farming;

a) Soil and Water Conservation: Major soil types, soil fertility, fertilisers, soil erosion, soil conservation, watershed management;

b) Water Resource: Irrigation Management: types of irrigation, sources of irrigation, crop-water requirement, command area development, water conservation techniques, micro-irrigation, irrigation pumps, major, medium and minor irrigation.

c) Farm and Agri Engineering : Farm Machinery and Power, Sources of power on the farm- human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass, bio fuels, water harvesting structures, farm ponds, watershed management, Agro Processing, Controlled and modified storage, perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos.

d) Plantation & Horticulture: Definition, meaning and its branches. Agronomic practices and production technology of various plantation and horticulture crops. Post-harvest management, value and supply chain management of Plantation and Horticulture crops.

e) Animal Husbandry: Farm animals and their role in Indian economy, Animal husbandry methods in India, common terms pertaining to different species of livestock, Utility classification of breeds of cattle. Introduction to common feeds and fodders, their classification and utility.

Introduction to poultry industry in India (past, present and future status), Common terms pertaining to poultry production and management. Concept of mixed farming and its relevance to socio-economic conditions of farmers in India. Complimentary and obligatory nature of livestock and poultry production with that of agricultural farming.

f) Fisheries: Fisheries resources, management and exploitation – freshwater, brackish water and marine; Aquaculture- Inland and marine; biotechnology; post-harvest technology. Importance of fisheries in India. Common terms pertaining to fish production.

g) Forestry: Basic concepts of Forest and Forestry. Principles of silviculture, forest mensuration, forest management and forest economics. Concepts of social forestry, agroforestry, joint forest management. Forest policy and legislation in India, India State of Forest Report 2015. Recent developments under Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.

h) Agriculture Extensions: Its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in dissemination of Agricultural technologies.

i) Ecology and Climate Change: Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Causes of climate change, Green House Gases (GHG), major GHG emitting countries, climate analysis, distinguish between adaptation and mitigation, climate change impact to agriculture and rural livelihood, carbon credit, IPCC, UNFCCC, CoP meetings, funding mechanisms for climate change projects, initiatives by Govt of India, NAPCC, SAPCC, INDC.

j) Present Scenario of Indian Agriculture and Allied activities; recent trends, major challenges in agriculture measures to enhance viability of agriculture. Factors of Production in agriculture; Agricultural Finance and Marketing; Impact of Globalization on Indian Agriculture and issues of Food Security; Concept and Types of Farm Management.

Rural Development: Concept of Rural Area, Structure of the Indian Rural Economy-Importance and role of the rural sector in India- Economic, Social and Demographic Characteristics of the Indian rural economy, causes of rural backwardness.

Rural population in India; Occupational structure, Farmers, Agricultural Labourers, Artisans, Handicrafts, Traders, Forest dwellers/tribes and others in rural India- Trends of change in rural population and rural work force; problems and conditions of rural labour; Issues and challenges in Handlooms

Panchayati Raj Institutions – Functions and Working. MGNREGA, NRLM – Aajeevika, Rural Drinking water Programmes, Swachh Bharat, Rural Housing, PURA and other rural development programmes.

 

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Forage Production:

Soils, soil fertility and fertilizers, irrigation methods and practices, agronomic practices of fodder crops, crop rotations and intensity, grasses and grasslands, silvipastoral systems, silage and hay making.

Animal Genetics and Breeding:

Basic concept of gene, laws of inheritance, linkage maps, sex determination, chromosomal aberration, gene mutation, systems of breeding, mating systems, heritability, repeatability and selection in animal breeding, size index, population genetics, gene type and phenotypic variation.

Physiology of Reproduction and Lactation:

Male and female reproductive systems, spermato-genesis, oestrous cycle, symptoms of heat, semen collection, evaluation and preservation, artificial insemination, fertilization and embryo transfer, pregnancy and lactation, structure of mammary gland, milk synthesis and milk ejection.

Animal Nutrition:

Composition of animal body, metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, macro and micro elements in nutrition, vitamins and hormones in nutrition, digestion, nutritive value, nutritional requirements, rumen metabolism, calf feeding, feed formulation and feeding patterns utilisation of crop residues and industrial byproducts.

Animal Health:

Morphology, reproduction, life history and mode of infection of the livestock parasites – Tryonasoma, Babesis, Coccidia, Schistosoma, Trichomonas, Liver Flukes. Life history of insects such as flies, lice, ticks and mites and their importance in livestock farming. Major diseases of livestock, preventive and curative measures for their control.

Dairy Management and Economics:

Principles of management of farm and labour, various classes of farm stock, sanitation in dairy farm and water, disposal of sewage and clean milk production, management functions, factors affecting farm efficiency, farm planning and budgeting, resource allocation, economic consideration of herd size, milk production, cost of inputs, labour efficiency.

Dairy Science:

  • Composition of milk and factors affecting its legal standards for milk in India, physical properties and nutrition value of milk. Chemistry of lipids, protein and lactose, vitamins in milk and mineral balance.
  • Type of micro-organisms in milk and their morphological characteristics, milk borne diseases. Hygienic milk production, growth of bacteria in milk, milk fermentation, bacteriological grading in milk, indigenous milk products – manufacturing process, chemical composition and microbiology of products like khoa, burfi, channa, paneer, shrikhand.
  • Western milk products – Manufacturing process of products like skim milk / whole milk powder, cheese, ghee, table butter, baby food, ice cream. Chemical composition of various products and fermented milk.
  • Variation in milk composition in relation to species, storage and heat treatment, bacteriology of starter cultures, fermented milks, condensed milk and dried milks.
  • Milk procurement methods, price fixation and marketing of milk and milk products.

Poultry Production:

Breeds of poultry – genetic principles – selection methods – mating systems – economic traits – poultry production systems and management of feeding, disease control and marketing of poultry products – other species – quails, ducks and guinea fowl.

Other Species of Livestock (Sheep, Goat, Pig and Rabbit):

Important breeds – production systems, management – feeding – disease control – marketing.

Meat and Meat Products:

Production of meat – composition and characteristics of good meat – slaughter houses meat inspection – preservation of meat – meat by-products and its utilization.

 

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

1. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

1.1 Meaning; Objectives; Basic Accounting; Principles, Concepts and Conventions; Limitations of Financial Accounting

1.2 Preparation of Financial Statements – Nature of Financial Statements; Capital and Revenue Expenditure; Trading Account; Profit and Loss Appropriation account and Balance Sheet; Limitation of Financial Statements

1.3 Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Statements – Tools of Financials Statements analysis; Ratio Analysis – different types of ratios; Advantages and Limitation of ratio analysis.

1.4 Depreciation: Reserves and Provisions – Meaning ; Need for providing Depreciation; Methods of providing depreciation ; Provisions and Reserves; Choice of Methods; Objectives of Depreciation Policy.

1.5 Inventory Valuation: Nature and Importance of Inventory Valuation; Types of Inventory Systems; Methods of Inventory valuation; choice of Method.

1.6 Developments in Accounting – Interim Reporting – Segment Reporting – Value – added statement – Corporate Social Reporting – Human Resource Accounting – Accounting for Intangible Assets – Accounting for Financial Instruments – Environmental Accounting – Inflation Accounting.

1.7 Statement of Sources and Application of Funds – Meaning of Funds, Distinction between Funds and Cash; Preparation of Fund Flow Statement; Analysis of flow of funds; Utility of Fund Flow Statement; Preparation of cash flow statement; Utility of cash Flow Statement.

1.8 Preparation of Final Accounts of Banking, Insurance Companies – Basel III & Prudential Norms like Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non-Performing Assets – Provisions therefore for Banks and financial Institutions.

2. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

2.1 Meaning and scope of Management Accounting; Financial Accounting Vs.Management Accounting; Role of Management Accounting; Function and Position of Controller.

2.2 Variable Costing – Fixed costs and Variable Costs; Distinctions between variable costing and absorption costing; application of variables costing as a technique; Differential costing and decision making.

2.3 Marginal costing – Cost volume profit analysis, Profit Planning, Break-even analysis, Break even Point and Break-even chart.

2.4 Methods of costing – job costing – Contract costing – Batch Costing – Process costing – Unit costing – Operation costing and Operating costing.

2.5 Cost of capital – Cost of different sources of finance –Weighted average cost of capital – Marginal cost of capital – Concepts of operating and financial leverage – Capital Structure patterns – Designing optimum capital structure – Different sources of finance – Long, medium and short term finance.

2.6 Money market and their operations

2.7 Business valuations – Mergers, Acquisitions and corporate restructuring

2.8 Budgetary control – Meaning and objectives; operation of Budgeting system; types of Budgets; Preparation of Sales Budget; Production Budget, Cash Budget, Master Budget; Flexible Budgeting; Zero Budgeting.

2.9 Standard Costing –Meaning of Standard costing; distinction between Standard Costing and Budgeting Control; Advantages of Standard costing; Setting up of Standards; Variance Analysis – Material, labour and Overheads.

2.10 Management Control System : distinction between strategic planning, Operational Control and Management control System; Responsibility Accounting; Transfer Pricing; Tools of Control – Residual Income and Return on Investment; Performance Budgeting; Economic Value added.

2.11 Appraisal of firms – Objectives, Uniform costing; Ratio Based Comparison; Credit Rating; Risk Assessment.

2.12 Appraisal of Projects – Methods of appraisal – preparation of project report – Economic, Technical, Financial Feasibility – Techniques for evaluation of projects like Pay Back Method, Discounted Cash Flow, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, etc. – Sensitivity analysis in capital budgeting – Impact of inflation in capital budgeting – Risk analysis in capital budgeting – Social cost benefit analysis – Simulation and decision tree analysis.

2.13 Working Capital Management: Factors affecting working Capital requirements; Assessment of Working Capital; Inventory Management; Receivable Management; Cash Management; Method of Financing working capital; different forms of bank credit; working capital and Banking Policy.

3. AUDITING

3.1 Auditing – Nature and scope – Audit Process – Objectives of audit – basic principles governing an audit – Types of audit – Relationship of auditing with other subjects – Internal Audit and External Audit – Audit & Inspection

3.2 Planning and programming of Audit – Division of work; supervision and review of audit notes and working papers; planning the flow of audit work.

3.3 Conduct of Audit – Audit Programme; Audit Note Book; Working Papers and Audit files.

3.4 Internal Control – Internal Control, Internal Check, Internal Audit and Concurrent Audit.

3.5 Vouching – General consideration vouching of payments and receipts; Vouching of payment into and out of Bank; Vouching of Goods on consignment, Sale on approval basis, Empties, Sale under hire-purchase system and various types of allowances to customers.

3.6 Verification – Meaning ; General principles; Verification of Cash in hand and Cash at Bank; Verification and Valuation of Investments and Inventories; Loans Bills Receivables; Free hold and Leasehold property; Debtors, Plant and Machinery; Verification of different liabilities.

3.7 Audit of Limited Company – Statutory requirements under the Companies Act 1956 – Audit of branches – Joint Audit – Concepts of true and fair materiality and audit risk in the context of audit of companies.

3.8 Dividends and divisible profits – financial, legal and policy considerations with special reference to depreciation – Audit reports – Qualification and Notes on accounts –Special report on offer documents.

3.9 Audit under income tax and indirect taxes – Special features of audit of banks, Insurance companies, cooperative societies and Non-banking Financial Companies – Audit of incomplete records – Special audit assignments like audit of bank borrowers – Inspection of special entities like banks, financial institutions, etc. – Investigation including due diligence.

3.10 Concept of Cost Audit, Management Audit, Operational Audit, Environmental Audit and Energy Audit.

3.11 Audit under computerized environments – Computer Auditing – Specific problems of EDP audit – need for review of internal control especially procedure controls and facility controls – techniques of audit of EDP output – use of computer for internal and management audit purpose – test packs – computerized audit programme – involvement of the auditor at the time of setting up the computer system.

 

ECONOMICS

Section I: Economics

  1. Micro Economics: Theory of Consumer Behaviour, Theory of Firm, Theory of Markets, Theory of Distribution and General Equilibrium.
  2. Macro Economics: National Income Accounting, Macro Economic stabilization policies, Fiscal and Monetary Policies, – Classical, Keynesian and Monetarists, Rational Expectation and Supply side Economics, Public Finance – Theory of Taxation, Expenditure and Borrowing / Debt.
  3. Economics of Development and Planning – Theory of Growth and Development, Regional Imbalances, Planning – Types, Models and Evaluation of Plans, Project Economics, and Economic and Financial sector reforms.
  4. International Economics – Theories of trade, Foreign Exchange Market, Balance of Payments, International Monetary System and WTO.
  5. Money and Banking

Section II: Agricultural Economics

  1. Basic principles of Farm Management
  2. Role of Agriculture in Economic Development
  3. Factor Market – Land Market, Labour Market, including wages and capital Market
  4. Agricultural Marketing, Agricultural Prices and Terms of Trade
  5. Rural Credit Structure – Formal and Informal, Capital Formation in Agriculture
  6. Development Programmes including Poverty Alleviation and Rural Employment
  7. Agricultural Policy and planning

Section III: Elementary Statistics for Economics

  1. Measures of central tendency and dispersion- correlation, regression, Time-series analysis and index number
  2. Theory of Probability, Sampling theory, Sampling Design and its application
  3. Statistical Inference and Estimation, Statistical Tools and their application in Economic Analysis and Input – Output Analysis.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Ecology and its scope, bio-echers, habitat, niche, limiting factors, concept of ecosystem, abiotic, and biotic components, energy flow through ecosystem, food chain, food web, biomass, primary and secondary production, gross and net production – quantification (energy budget 10% net commercial production), pattern of primary production and biomass in the major ecosystem of the world, nutrient budget, man’s impact on nutrient cycles.

Ecosystems of the world, distinguishing characters of forests, grasslands, arid lands and wet lands. Ecological succession, types of successions, climate, factor and acclimatization, agricultural practices, land use pattern.

Population growth, dynamics, species interactions – inter and intra specific competition symbiosis, commensalism, parasitism, prey-predator intersections.

Types of forests in India and their coverage statistics – forest degradation problems caused by deforestation, bio-diversity, threats to bio-diversity, wild life conservation biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries.

Definition and Sources of Pollution:

  • Type and sources of primary and secondary air pollutants, atmospheric dispersion – distribution and transport of pollutants, influence of micrometrological parameters, effects of fog and smoke. Pollutants on plants, human beings, animals and non-living projects, air pollution control approaches, acid rain, causes and consequences.
  • Sources and types of water pollution, eutrophication, environmental consequences and health effects of water pollution, water quality, DO BOD COD of water pollution. Pesticides pollution and its ecological consequences, treatment methods in water pollution, control.
  • General ideas of environmental legislation – EPA (EPA-Environmental Protection Act, 1956), water and air pollution legislation.
  • Sources of soil pollution, harmful effects, problems and methods of solid waste disposal.
  • Energy and environment renewable and non-renewable energy sources, causes of energy crisis, fuel wood crisis, bio-gas, non-conventional energy, sources, solar, wind, etc. potential advantage limitation.
  • Relationship between development and environmental impact. Concept in EIA, methodology, impact identification, EIA of thermal, power projects, mining hydro electric projects, irrigation projects, etc., agricultural practices.
  • Green house gases, global warming, climate change and ozone depletion, status in Indian sub-continent.

 

FOOD PROCESSING / FOOD TECHNOLOGY

General:

  • Agriculture and Livestock, milk production in India, National bodies concerned with trade and export of processed foods in the country, special value addition in food processing, food regulations, specifications, process economics and management, Food & Agro Industries as a means of employment generation, problems of food processing in India.
  • Food Chemistry, Food Microbiology, Nutrition
  • Proximate composition of foods, chemistry of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, chemistry of food constituents vis-à-vis physical properties of foods, changes in food constituents during processing.
  • Moisture and minerals in foods, acid soluble and insoluble ash and their significance.
  • Vitamins in foods, role of vitamins, vitamin deficiency diseases.

Energy Value of Foods, Energy Requirement:

  • Protein quality, protein malnutrition, infant nutrition and infant foods, nutritive value of foods in relation to processing, enzymes and their application in foods.
  • Recommended daily allowance of calories, proteins, vitamins, growth kinetics of micro-organisms, identification of micro-organisms.
  • Factors influencing the destruction of micro-organisms.
  • Micro-organisms in natural products and their control, sources and preventions of contamination.
  • Microbiology of atmosphere, water, milk, cereals and cereal products, meat and meat products, fish and fish products, canned foods.
  • Food poisoning, food borne infections.

Infestation Control and Pesticides:

Commodity storage, insect, pests and their effects, infestation detection, moulds / their role, rodents / vertebrate pests, pesticides classification / chemistry / formulation, appliances, insect growth regulators, bio-pesticides, fumigants, infestation control and preventive measures, sanitation, ballooning techniques, irradiation, pesticides and health hazards, safety devices, organic foods.

General Principles of Food Preservation:

  • Preservation of foods by application of heat, canning, bottling, etc.
  • Preservation of food by removal of moisture, water activity and its significance.
  • Intermediate moisture foods, prevention of food by refrigeration and freezing.
  • Sugar and salt as preserving agents.
  • Use of chemicals in food preservation.
  • Use of micro-organisms in food preservation.
  • Irradiation and microwave heating of food products.

Unit Operations:

  • Fluid flow, heat transfer, evaporation, application of evaporation in food industry, types of evaporators, distillation – Routh’s Law, Harry’s Law, classification of distillation, batch distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation and their application in food industries, drying, theory of drying, free moisture, critical moisture content, equilibrium moisture content, heat transfer in drying, types of driers and their respective applications in food industries.
  • Material operations, material handling, mixing, kneading, blending, homogenization, separation methods, filtration, centrifugation, size reduction and classification, slicing, dicing, crushing, grinding, classification of equipment and application. Crystallization.

Technology of Animal Products:

  • Livestock and poultry population in India
  • Meat and poultry industry in India in relation to Nation’s economy.
  • Types of slaughter, modern abattoir, estimation of animals, meat grading.
  • Factors influencing the quality of fresh meat and cured meat.
  • Preservation of meat, refrigeration and freezing, thermal processing, dehydration and use of chemicals.
  • Meat curing and packaging.
  • By-products of meat industry, egg and egg products.
  • Fisheries resources of the world.
  • Cold storage and freezing preservation, canning of fish and fish products, drying and dehydration of fish.
  • Smoking, curing and pickling of fish, fish oils, fish meal.
  • By-products of fish processing, fish processing plant sanitation.

Dairy Technology:

Factors Affecting Composition of Milk:

  • Composition of milk from various species, production, processing, distribution and storage of liquid milk.
  • Technology of evaporated milk, condensed milk, technology of non-fat milk solids, full fat milk powder and instantised milk powder.
  • Technology of cheese.
  • Fermented milk products, milk plant sanitation, [pasteurization and sterilization.

Technology of Food Grains and Legumes:

Wheat Production, Varieties and their Qualities:

  • Milling of wheat, technology of bread, biscuits, crackers, cakes, dough rheology.
  • Rice production, varieties and their qualities.
  • Cooking quality of rice and methods of studying the same, methods of part boiling, economics of part boiling.
  • Cooking quality of new and old rice.
  • Rice milling operations, milling machinery, degree of milling.
  • By-products of rice milling and their utilisation.
  • Processing oil seeds, extraction of oil from oil seeds.
  • Refining and bleaching of oils, hydrogenation of oil.
  • Legume – production, types of legumes, chemical aspects and quality of legumes, processing, secondary processing of products, utilization of minor pulses.

Technology of Fruits and Vegetables:

  • Containers and other packaging materials used in fruit and vegetable preservation. Canning and bottling of fruit and vegetables, quality of raw materials for processing. Fruit syrups, squashes, cordials and nectars, jam, jellies and marmalades, pickles and chutneys.
  • Carbonated beverages.
  • Vinegar and tomato products.
  • Storage and handling of fruits and vegetables.
  • By-products from fruits and vegetables.
  • Aseptic processing and packaging, processing of mushrooms.

Plantation Products and Flavour Technology:

  • Refining and processing of spices, packing of spices, value added products from spices.
  • Carbonated beverages.
  • Production, processing, grading and marketing of tea, curing, roasting, brewing of coffee, instant coffee – manufacture / production, processing, grading and marketing of cocoa.
  • Food plant organization, factors in plant location, plant layout, industrial costing, testing marketing of new product.

Flavours – Production, processing, chemical composition, properties, special attributes, flavouring components, extraction, evaluation, quality control and standards, formation of flavours in foods, technology, isolation and identification of flavouring materials, synthetic flavouring agents and problems thereof, flavour evaluation, standards / specifications.

Packaging Technology – Evolution, functions, relevance, design, protective packaging, shelf life, permeability, kinetics, various types of packing materials, vacuum / gas / shrink / stretch / industrial packaging, sealing, pouches, packaging standards / regulations / laws / specifications, quality control, packaging and ecosystem.

 

FORESTRY

Forestry – Definition, forests types and their characteristics, necessity of forests with changing and modernization of technology, inter-relationship between griculture and forestry.

Forest environments and environmental factors, forest community, ecological dominance, ecological adaptation end evolution, forest ecotypes.

Regeneration of forest – Definition and objectives, natural regeneration by seed (general consideration of afforestation and reforestation, preparation of plantation area site maintenance and improvement).

Environment factor influencing forest vegetation and productivity, physiology of leaf shedding and peeling of barks in perennial trees, physiological basis of including and breaking of dormancy in seeds.

Silviculture – Definition, factors, affecting the site, form and life of forest trees, growth characteristics, crop morphology, differentiation of stands, forest composition and distribution.

Silviculture Systems – Clear strip and alternate strip systems, uniform system and group system, irregular wood system, two storeyed high forest system, coppice with standard system.

Principal groups of plants, classification of forest plants yielding economic products, origin and distribution of economically important forest flora, nature and importance of economic parts in the important families (Renunculaceae, Magnoliaceae, Anonaceae, Malvaceae, Bombaceae, Tiliaceae, Linacease, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, Anacardiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Compositae, Sapotaceae, Bignoniaceae, Libiatae, Casurianaceae, Dioscoriaceae, Palmae, Coniferae, Cycadaceae), growth characteristics, distribution, phenology, silvicultural characters, community environment, regeneration methods and management of conifers and dicot species, species suitable for canal banks, roadside, landscape and railside plantations.

Importance of energy plantation, quick growing species, hydrocarbon plants, biomass for thermal purposes, principles of gasification, densification, estimation of calorific value.

Seed orchards, maintenance and selection of orchards, classes of seeds and production methods, seed extraction and processing, production of elite seedlings for improving planting value, increase through tissue culture, nursery raising, containerization.

Microflora in forestry system, carbon cycle decomposition of organic matter, humus formation, nitrogen cycle – nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification microbial transformation of phosphorous, sulphur, iron, rhizobial nitrogen fixation, role of micorrhyzae in making nutrients available, use of soil fungi or recycling organic wastes and edible mushroom production.

Definition of social and agro-forestry, tree farming on wasteland, afforestation on hill slopes, wastelands, river banks and water tanks, cultivation of fodder trees.

Wood structure, cellular composition – barks, sap wood, heart wood and pith, early wood, late wood, growth ring, minute structures of wood-ty lose and other inclusions in pores, ultrastructures of wood, compression and tension wood, physical properties of wood – reaction of heat, water, sound, light and electricity, mechanical properties of wood.

Importance of wood and minor forest products, products utilized after minor processing – grasses, products utilized after processing – gums, resins, rubber, fibers, flosses, distillation and extraction of tanning materials and vegetable dyes, cattle feed, non-edible oilseeds, tussar and lac.

Conversion, extraction and transportation of timbers and firewood, marketing and sales, timber depot.

Importance of forest pathology, study of important diseases, diseases caused by fungi, mycoplasma, parasitic and non-parasitic causes, use of mycorrhizae in disease control.

Importance of forest, pests attacking forest products, felled trees, converted timbers and seeds and their control, measures, termites in relation to forestry and timbers, beneficial forest insects – silk, lac and honeybees.

Economics of forest management, forest conservation and development, forest products, their demand and supply forecasting, marketing of forest products.

Forest evaluation and economic appraisal, types of appraisal, business and agricultural residues (rice straw, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, cotton stalk, jute sticks, hemp, banana stem and peduncle water hyacinth), pulping – mechanical and chemical, bleaching, waste paper utilization, free species suitable for pulp making.

Forest trees of industrial utility – eucalyptus, casuarina, acacia, bamboo. Small scale industries based on forestry – agricultural implements, furniture, musical instruments, turnery, large scale industries – veneer and plywood pulp, hard board packing case, coach building sleepers.

Defects and abnormalities of wood, method of evaluation and measurement of natural defects, defects during processing, manufacturing defects, seasoning of wood, influence of temperature, relative humidity and air circulation, method of seasoning, air kiln and chemical, classification of timbers for seasoning schedule.

Natural durability of timber, bamboo and thatch grasses, agencies for destruction of timber – fungi, insects, micro-organisms, preservation of wood – types of preservents, permeability and treatability of timber, fixation of wood preservatives, hot and cold bath process, pressure process, fire protection of timber.

 

LAND DEVELOPMENT (SOIL SCIENCE)/ AGRICULTURE

Land use and land capability classification, irrigability criteria; interpretation of soil and land resource data, characteristics of Agro-climatic zones of India. Soil and water conservation theory and practice for different agro-climatic conditions. Water management in crop production and irrigation agronomy – water resources in India, soil-plant-water relations; principles and practices of irrigation and water requirements criteria. Drainage of agricultural lands. Soil fertility management; fertilizers and manures including bio-fertilizers. Problematic soils and reclamation measures. Crop husbandry in irrigated and rainfed systems with particular reference to cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibre crops, sugar crops and fodders and pastures. Organic farming concepts. Dryland farming / rainfed agriculture / watershed development – concepts and field techniques. Biotechnologies in field crops. Waste water treatment and recycling of bio-wastes. Integrated farming systems in irrigated and rainfed conditions. Seed production and technology. Principles of agronomic trials / experimental designs and data interpretations.

AGRICULTURE

Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agro ecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans. Climate change – International conventions and global initiatives. Green house effect and global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of highyielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. Organic and Precision farming. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.

Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests. Propagation of forest plants. Forest products. Agro forestry and value addition. Conservation of forest flora and fauna.

Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds. Soil- physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of India. Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations, integrated nutrient management. Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Efficient phosphorus and potassium use. Problem soils and their reclamation. Soil factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.

Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management. Dry land agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rain fed areas. Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing runoff losses of irrigation water. Rainwater harvesting. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of waterlogged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution. Irrigation projects in India.

Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Marketing management – strategies for development, market intelligence. Price fluctuations and their cost; role of cooperatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop Insurance.

Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers. Training programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in dissemination of Agricultural technologies. Non-Government Organization (NGO) and self-help group approach for rural development.

Cell structure, function and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure and function of genetic material. Laws of heredity. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploids and aneuploids. Mutations – and their role in crop improvement. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.

History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution and domestication of crop plants, center of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resourcesconservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants. Molecular markers and their application in plant improvement. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Heterosis and its exploitation. Somatic hybridization. Breeding for disease and pest resistance. Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement. Genetically modified crop plants.

Seed production and processing technologies. Seed certification, seed testing and storage. DNA finger printing and seed registration. Role of public and private sectors in seed production and marketing. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues and its impact on Agriculture.

Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients. Soil – water- plant relationship.

Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis- modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C3, C4 and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalilzation. Plant growth substances and their role in crop production. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy. Stress physiology – draught, salt and water stress.

Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops. Package practices of major horticultural crops. Protected cultivation and high tech horticulture. Post-harvest technology and value addition of fruits and vegetables. Landscaping and commercial floriculture. Medicinal and aromatic plants. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.

Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops and their economic importance. Classification of pests and diseases and their management. Integrated pest and disease management. Storage pests and their management. Biological control of pests and diseases. Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Plant quarantine measures. Pesticides, their formulation and modes of action.

Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population – vision 2020. Reasons for grain surplus. National and international food policies. Production, procurement, distribution constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty, Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS), policy implementation in context to globalization. Processing constraints. Relation of food production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern. Food based dietary approaches to eliminate hunger. Nutrient deficiency – Micro nutrient deficiency: Protein Energy Malnutrition or Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PEM or PCM), Micro nutrient deficiency and HRD in context of work capacity of women and children. Food grain productivity and food security.

 

MINOR IRRIGATION (WATER RESOURCES)

Water Requirement of Crops:

Crop period, duty, delta of crop, duty of water, relation between duty and delta, irrigation efficiency, consumptive use of water, soil moisture relationship, soilmoisture deficiency, estimating depth and frequency of irrigation on the basis of soil moisture regime concepts.

Canal Irrigation System:

Alignment of canals, watershed canals, contour canals, side shape canals, distribution system for canal irrigation, main canal, branch canal, distributaries, minors, water courses, curves in channels, gross command area, culturable command area, irrigation intensity, time factor, area factor, determination of channel capacity, channel losses, evaporation, seepage (percolation and absorption), seepage loss factors, empirical formulas for channel loss, sediment transport and load, mechanics of sediment transport, design of channels in coarse alluvium, shields entertainment method for channel with protected bank, regime channels, Kennedy’s theory, critical velocity rates, design procedure, Kutter’s formula, Manning’s formula, negosity co-efficients, Chery’s formula, Lacey’s theory, Lacey’s regime channels, lining of irrigation canals and economics of lining.

Hydrology:

Definition, hydrologic cycle, rainfall and its distribution, run-off and surface run-off, yield of drainage basis, sub-surface run-off, hydrograph, infiltration, soil moisture, field capacity, infiltration capacity curve and its equation, small and large watershed, precipitation and its measurement, frequency of storm intensity duration curve, stage discharge curve, velocity of flow in a stream, time of concentration of a catchment, valley storage, unit hydrograph theory, computation of run-off from rainfall, flood discharge and design flood.

Ground Water, Hydrology and Construction of Wells and Tubewells:

Drainage of ground water, ground water reservoir, occurrence of ground water, porosity yield, specific yield, specific retention of different kinds of formations, determination of specific yield, permeability, transmissibility, velocity of ground water, hydraulics of wells, aquifers and acquicludes, non-artesian, requifers, artesian aquifers and artesian wells, specific capacity, infiltration wells, infiltration galleries, measurement of yield by theoretical and practical method, pumping test and recuperation test, Thiem’s equilibrium formula for confined and unconfined aquifers, well interference, well loss and specific capacity, open wells and dug wells, different methods of recharging, various types of tubewells and its construction, methods of drilling of tubewells, well casing and screens, gravel packing, design of strainer, pumping arrangement.

Diversion Head Works:

Principles and design of weir and barrage, gravity and non-gravity weirs, layout of diversion headworks, diversion weir, types of weirs, masonry weirs with vertical drops, the under sluices, the canal head regulator, silt control works, causes of failure by piping and by uplift.

Canal Falls, Canal Regulators:

Types of falls and their design, design of head regulator and cross regulator.

Cross Drainage Works:

Aqueducts and siphon, level crossing principles and design.

Dams and Reservoirs:

Basic principles of reservoir planning, types of dams and their characteristics, selection of dam site, investigations (Engineering, Geological and Hydrological) combination of forces for design of dams, modes of failure and criteria for structural stability of gravity dams. Elementary profile of a gravity dam, construction of gravity dam, cracking of concrete in gravity dam, joints in gravity dam, keyways, water stops and foundation treatment for gravity dams.

Spillage, Gates and Energy Dissipators:

Definition, location, design consideration, various types of spillways, design of crest of ogee spillway, cavitation, energy dissipators below overflow spillway and their design, use of hydraulic jump as energy dissipator, stilling basin, types of gates and their characteristics.

River Control:

Scope and objective of river control, marginal embankment, spurs, cut-offs, launching apron.

Sanitation:

Basic sciences for wash and sanitation, public health and hygiene, water supply, solid waste management.

 

SOCIAL WORK

Concept of Professional Social Work:

Concept, Definition, Objectives, Goals, Values, Principles and Codeof Ethics. Ethical Responsibilities in Social Work, Scopeof Professional Social Work, Attributes of Professional Social Worker.

Evolution of Social Work:

Evolution of Social Work, Social work in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Period. Social Work and Related Terms: Social Services, Social Welfare, Social Reforms & Charity. Social Security, Human Rights and Peoples’ participation, Social Justice and Social development

Development of Social Work Education in India:

Evolution of social work education in India, Training in Social Work Education, Focus, Nature and Content of Social Work Education. Fields of Social Work. Functions and roles of the Government and Non-Government Organizations.

Democracy as a Concept:

Meaning, types, features, strengths and limitations. Constitutional Foundations Salient features of Indian constitution, Preamble of constitution, composition, power and functions of Indian constitution. Unit-3 Introduction to ideologies: Ideology of Sustainable and People centered development. Ideology of action groups & social movements Ideology of non-government organizations. Approach to Social Work-Rights –Based approach, strength based approach

Contemporary Ideologies:

Nationalism, Feminism, Multiculturalism, Postmodernism.

Working with Groups:

Nature, types and Characteristics of Group, Definition of Group Work, Purpose and evolution of the method, Membership, Duration and phases in Group Work. Group Process and Dynamics: Process in groups and recreational, non-formal education, skill development group, leadership, isolation, decision making, communication, relationship, conflict, personal experiences, Bond, sub- group.

Social Welfare Administration:

Concept & Process of social welfare and models of social welfare. Concept, Purpose, Principles and Significance of social welfare administration. Structure, functions of Department of Social Justice (Government of India), Concept of Local Self Government.

Social Justice and Welfare Organization:

Concept and Definition of Social Justice, Meaning, concept and Significance of Welfare Organizations, welfare programmes, Societies Registration Act, 1860, Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950. Social Policy and Management of Agency: Definition & meaning of social Policy, Concept and scope of POSDCORB, Fund Raising, Resource Mobilization, Monitoring & Evaluation, Social Audit. Project Proposal: Guidelines, Structure and format of Project Proposal. Salient features of Research project and funding project.

Understanding Community:

Concept of Community, Functions of Community. Social Work perspective of Community. Community organization as a method of Social Work: Rothman’s model of Community Organization. Concepts: Power structure, Empowerment, Community participation, Role of Community Organizer (As Guide, Enabler, Expert, Therapist), Role of a Social Worker.

Strategies / Tools in Community organization:

Advocacy, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Participatory Rapid Assessment, Public Interest Litigation (PIL), Community Meeting, Cadre Building, Training, Action Plan. Data Bank Skills in Community organization – Information Gathering. Community Profiling Observation & Analytical Skill, Listening & Responding Skill, Conflict Resolution, Evaluation. Process Recording, Documentation in Community work.

Social Work Research:

Meaning, Scope and importance of social work research; salient features of Qualitative and Quantitative research, Research Methodology: Steps of social research, Research Design, Sampling Design, Data collection –formulation of tool, sources and methods of data collection, data processing

Social Action as a method of Social Work:

Conceptual Framework of Integrated social work, Concept of Integrated social work. Need, Importance and Essential elements of integrated social work practice. Biodiversity, Disaster Management, Environment, Jal-Jungle-Jameen and Unconventional Energy Sources. Communication process in social work practice – Verbal and Non-Verbal

Social Policy:

Concept of Social Policy, Relationship between social policy and social development, value underlying social policy, the fundamental rights, duties and directive principles of Sate Policy in Indian Constitution. Social Legislation: Concept, need, importance and objectives of social legislations – UN declaration of Human Rights 1948, Public Interest Litigation, Free Legal Aid Services; Lok Adalat, Mediation, Right to Information Act 2005, Right to Education Act 2009, The Lokapal and Lokayukata Act 2013, Protection against Domestic Violence Act 2005, Juvenile Justice Act 2002 (Amendment)

Indian Society:

Tribal Community; meaning, characteristics. Rural Community; meaning, characteristics. Urban Community; meaning, characteristics. Social Stratification; Meaning, definition, functions, dysfunction, caste. Social Mobility; Concept, meaning, class. Social Institution, Social control. Meaning, characteristics and functions of social institution – Family; Marriage; Religion; Education; State.

Social Problems And Fields Of Social Work In India:

Problem Pertaining To Marriage, Family And Caste: Dowry-Child Marriage, Divorce, Families With Working Couples, Disorganised Families, Families With Emigrant Heads Of The Households, Gender Inequality, Authoritarian Family Structure, Major Changes In Caste Systems And Problems of Casteism. Problems Pertaining To Weaker Sections: Problems Of Children, Women, Aged. Handicapped and Of Backward Classes (SCs, STs, and Other Backward Classes). Problems Of Deviance – Truancy, Vagrancy And Juvenile Delinquency, Crime, White Collar Crime, Organized Crime, Collective Violence, Terrorism, Prostitution And Sex Related Crimes. Social Vices – Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, Beggary, Corruption and Communalism. Suicide of Farmer’s – Causes and Measures to prevent Farmer’s Suicide.

Problems of Social Structure:

Poverty, Unemployment, Bonded Labour, Child Labour. Fields Of Social work In India:- Child Development, Development Of Youth, Women’s Empowerment, Welfare Of Aged, Welfare Of Physically, Mentally And Socially Handicapped, Welfare Of Backward Classes (SCs, STs And Other Backward Classes), Rural Development Urban  Community Development, Medical And Psychiatric Social Work, Industrial Social Work, Social Security Offender Reforms.

You need to pass the sectional, as well as the overall NABARD Grade A Cut off to go to pass through the different stages of the NABARD Grade A Selection Process.

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  • English Descriptive
  • General Awareness
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