1. Change in demographic balance in North Eastern States
  • While NE states comprise of 12% of total tribal population in India, majority of these state have >50% of their population formed by tribals.
  • Hence, unlike Central Indian states where tribals have been minorities, NE tribals enjoy majorities and hence their issues are not sidelined easily.
  • However, the rapid immigration of non-tribals into these areas has tilted the balance of population.
  • Since 1951, Arunachal’s tribal population proportion has decline from 90% to 64% in 1991, Tripura from 56% to 30% and Bodos have become a minority in many districts as well.
    1. Sixth Schedule Provisions
      • The 6th schedule provisions were enacted to provide greater autonomy for the tribal states in handling their developmental and social concerns.
      • However, the implementation of the 6th schedule provisions to devolve power to the lowest level and introduce democratic provisions have not worked because of the local tribal systems that have been in place in these areas.
    2. Privatization of Communal Lands
      • Adverse impact of privatization of land on women’s position due to lack of heredity rights.
    3. Funds are available but lack of capacity to spend them — human resources, institutions are weak and lack of planning, transparency and accountability.
      • Lack of Planning departments
    4. Human Development Indicators — health and education services